The American Civil Liberties Union recommends Impairment Testing as a reasonable alternative to urinalysis and hair testing.

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Realizing that an impairment-free standard must be maintained for certain professions involving public safety, the American Civil Liberties Union suggests an alternative to urinalysis and hair testing is impairment testing. The ACLU recommends Factor 1000, a muscular, motor-coordination test first developed by NASA for astronauts that is commercvially available from Performance Factors Inc. of Alameda, CA. The test resembles a video game where the subject tries to control a moving cursor using a joystick. The results are compared to a baseline score of the test-taker. The complete test takes abolut one minute and the results are immediately available. Similar tests that measure cognitive or mental impairment are also available and may be more appropriate for certain types of jobs. Companies which use Factor 2000 are finding that drug and alcohol use are not the most common reasons for failure; rather, severe fatigue and illness are more common.