Drug Testing History

Drug Testing History
2002
January 30

In the Board of Education v. Earls the U.S. Supreme Court expands suspicionless student drug testing for all students who wish to participate in any extracurricular activities

The U.S. Supreme Court approves an major expansion of suspicionless student drug testing mandating drug testing for all students who wish to participate in any extracurricular activities, including, for example, the chess club, the Honor Society and the marching band. (Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 [OK], et al v. Lindsay Earls et al, No. 01-332). After four years of drug testing, only three Tecumseh, Oklahoma students – all athletes – had tested positive for drugs. Writing for the majority, Justice Clarence Thomas ruled that the drug testing policy was “reasonable,” even in the absence of individualized suspicion or an identifiable school-wide drug problem. “This Court has not required a particularized or pervasive drug problem before allowing the government to conduct suspicionless drug testing,” Thomas opined. “Indeed, the nationwide drug epidemic makes the war against drugs a pressing concern in every school.”
January 30

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 authorizes for the first time federal funds for school drug testing

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, making this the first time legislation that authorizes federal funds that may be used for school drug testing has been signed into law.

Following Earls student Drug Testing Skyrockets

DATIA surveyed its members to determine the extent of increased student drug testing by schools across the nation in the wake of the Supreme Court’s decision upholding drug testing of students in extracurricular activities. While the association expected to see an increase in student testing programs of 5% over the first year, the survey found an increase of 10% just three months after the court’s decision.

Annual Drug Testing Revenues Top $700 million dollars

According to US News & World Report 20 to 25 million Americans are drug-tested annually in the United States. Although 8% of tests that come back positive after an initial screen; follow-up tests confirm only half of those results. It is believed that 61% of major U.S. companies administer pre-employment drug tests and it is estimated that the annual revenues of the drug-testing industry are $737 million.

It is estimated that the United States spends $1 billion annually to drug test about 20 million federal workers

It is estimated that the United States spends $1 billion annually to drug test about 20 million federal workers

The U.S. Congress overwhelmingly approves legislation encouraging states to drug test all teenage driver’s license applicants

The U.S. Congress overwhelmingly approved legislation encouraging states to drug test all teenage driver’s license applicants. The provision, included in H.R. 4550, further recommends that states adopt policies denying licenses to applicants who test positive for drug metabolites.

The Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1998

The Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1998 provides federal funds to small businesses that want to impose drug testing on their employees.

The Drug Free Workplace Act

Congress passes the Drug Free Workplace Act requiring companies awarded federal contracts to institute drug testing as a condition of contract.

The Drug and Alcohol Testing Industry Association ( DATIA) is founded.

DATIA, The Drug and Alcohol Testing Industry Association, is founded with it stated mission to work closely with and influence key policy makers in Federal Agencies and in Congress. Today, DATIA has grown to represent over 1,100 members from all facets of the drug and alcohol testing industry. www.datia.org

Psychemedics introduces a personal hair testing service for parents

Psychemedics introduced the PDT-90® personal drug testing service for parents who wanted to use hair-testing technology to test their children for drug use.

Psychemedics has over 2,000 corporate customers nationwide

Psychemedics has over 2,000 corporate customers nationwide, numerous police departments, including five of the country’s largest, five Federal Reserve Banks, hospitals and parole departments, as well as over 120 high schools.titutional [Rushton v. Nebraska Public Power District, 844 F. 2D 562]

Anheuser Busch, makers of Budweiser beer, Miller beer, and many other brands, begins a policy of drug-testing in the workplace

In a notable irony, Anheuser Busch, makers of Budweiser beer, [Miller beer], and many other brands, maintains a policy of drug-testing in the workplace. Urinalysis remains its primary method of testing although it also employs hair-testing on an experimental basis. Anheuser Busch requires pre-employment screening of all it potential employees and also does periodic testing of current employees in order to “identify employees who may need assistance in dealing with illegal drugs” Meanwhile, According to the federal National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, in 1996 an estimated 110,640 people in the US died due to alcohol. Twenty-one percent of violent felons in state prisons committed their crimes while under the influence of alcohol alone. Federal research also shows that alcohol use was a behavioral factor during the crime for more than 40% of convicted murderers being held in either jail or State prison.

The U.S. Supreme Court allows the Veronia School District in the State of Washington to require suspicionless, mass urinalysis for high school and junior high school athletes.

The U.S. Supreme Courts, citing a drug crisis that has reached “epidemic proportions”, rules in favor of a Veronia, Washington School District law mandating mass urinalysis for all high school and junior high school athletes regardless of individual suspicion. The “epidemic” drug use cited in the petition before the court resulted in only twelve positive drug tests in four and a half years since Veronia’s mandatory urinalysis program had been instituted.

$77,000 per Drug Test!!!

A congressional committee estimated that the cost of each positive in government testing was $77,000 because the positive rate was only 0.5%.

Blockbuster pays itself almost $800,0000.

Blockbuster pays Pychemedics $790,000 for hair testing services.